The white South Africans passed a range of laws that discriminated against them. In andthe British torched more than 30, farms in the South African Republic and the Orange Free State and placed all the Afrikaner women and children in concentration camps, where, because of overcrowding and unsanitary conditions, more than 25, perished.
Moreover, the president of the South African Republic, Paul Kruger, attempted to lessen his state's long-term dependence on Cape merchants by developing a rail link to Portuguese East Africa.
He required that the Boers hand over all their arms and agree to the incorporation of their territories into the British empire as the Orange River Colony and the Transvaal.
Many who lived in the area of the diamond finds chose to sell agricultural surpluses, rather than their labor, and to invest their considerable profits in increasing production for the growing urban market.
Ninety thousand Afrikaners fought against a British army that eventually approachedmen, most from Britain but including large numbers of volunteers also from Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. They celebrated their language, Afrikaans, and demonstrated its beauty in an outpouring of poetry.
The first men arrived inand by there were 50, Chinese at work, comprising one-third of the gold mines' labor force. The conflict between Afrikaners and English speakers led to the establishment of the Afrikaner Bond in British mine owners and officials constantly decried Kruger's refusal to extend the franchise.
Here was vast mineral wealth beyond British control. Distrusting the mine owners and the British government, Kruger sought to build his country's strength. A significant number of the offspring from the white and slave unions were absorbed into the local proto- Afrikaans speaking white population.