An introduction to the oceanography the scientific study of the ocean
The proximity of NOAA oceanographic and fisheries laboratories to academic institutions leads to opportunities for joint educational and research programs, of benefit to both the academic and the federal laboratories.
Included is a discussion of the human, physical, and fiscal resources. Environmental Quality. The Ocean Drilling Program started in Main article: Physical oceanography Physical oceanography studies the ocean's physical attributes including temperature-salinity structure, mixing, surface wavesinternal waves, surface tidesinternal tidesand currents.
Introduction to physical oceanography knauss pdf
Oceanography is the systematic scientific study of the oceans with the goal of understanding the processes and phenomena of the oceans. With ONR's financial backing, existing marine research centers were expanded and new ones created. What is Oceanography? Coastal Hazards. A better understanding of the ecology of marine organisms is urgently needed to prevent irreversible damage to this living resource. Most members of the small marine science community turned to military-oriented work in uniform, in the civil service, or at universities and related institutions. The experience of working in these programs will lead us to ask different questions and to explore different mechanisms of working together in the next decade. There is concern about the ability of the United States to compete with Europe and Asia. The first is to document and discuss important trends in the human, physical, and fiscal resources available to oceanographers, especially academic oceanographers, over the last decade. In the past decade, oceanography has incorporated new technologies from other fields, for example, space research, electronics, and computer science. Franklin measured water temperatures during several Atlantic crossings and correctly explained the Gulf Stream's cause. Ocean heat content[ edit ]. It also means that we develop the shoreline environment and require shoreline protection. Excellence in oceanography also requires harmony between its basic scientific aims and the pressing needs of society. Agencies that fund oceanography can help maintain the competence of the field as problem areas change.
A general partnership theme is presented, followed by specific partnership possibilities with agencies of the federal government.
One important goal of these programs is to understand ocean processes in sufficient detail to allow predictions to be made of the impact of human activities on the environment.
Almost nothing was known of the ocean depths. Waste disposal, especially from pipelines, runoff, and dumping at sea, jeopardizes our ocean and coastal waters.
In the s, Auguste Piccard invented the bathyscaphe and used the bathyscaphe Trieste to investigate the ocean's depths.
The following is a central topic investigated by chemical oceanography.
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