An introduction to the neurological biology of the brain

Image 6 Scientists have learned a great deal about neurons by studying the synapse—the place where a signal passes from the neuron to another cell. Written and edited by a diverse team of international experts, Neurobiology of Brain Disorders is essential reading for anyone wishing to explore the basic science underlying neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases.

It contains the brain and the spinal cord which are both encased in bone which shows their importance.

The first freestanding neuroscience department then called Psychobiology was founded in at the University of California, Irvine by James L. The closer an animal is to humans on the evolutionary tree—think chimpanzees and gorillas, the more developed is this portion of their brain.

Dendrites are organelles that sense the neurotransmitter secreted by the axon of another neuron. How do songbirds learn new songs and bats localize with ultrasound?

parts of the brain and its functions psychology pdf

If we were able to magnify a view of individual neurons we would see that they are cells made from distinct parts see Figure 2. There is another part, called the Limbic System that is less well defined. This has allowed neuroscientists to study the nervous system in all its aspects: how it is structured, how it works, how it develops, how it malfunctions, and how it can be changed.

Introduction to neuroscience ppt

Interestingly, each of our various body parts has a unique portion of the primary motor cortex devoted to it see Figure 6. Finally, the frontal lobe , located at the forward part of the cerebral cortex is where behavioral motor plans are processed as well as a number of highly complicated processes occur including speech and language use, creative problem solving, and planning and organization. In the future, research linking neural activity to complex, real world attitudes and behavior will help us to understand human psychology and better intervene in it to help people. In the pages that follow we will begin by examining how the human nervous system develops and then we will learn about the parts of the brain and how they function. In this way, Weber began to shed light on the way that nerves, the nervous system, and the brain form the biological foundation of psychological processes. At this level, tools from molecular biology and genetics are used to understand how neurons develop and how genetic changes affect biological functions. In mammals, the pallium evolves into a complex six-layered structure called neocortex or isocortex. In birds, there are also major changes in forebrain structure. This sheath can include a fatty molecule called myelin, which provides insulation for the axon and helps nerve signals travel faster and farther.
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The Brain and Nervous System